(1)Protects Retina from UV light damage. Lutein and Zeaxanthin are concentrated both in the macula (the area of the retina which is associated with detailed vision), and in the lens of the eye. Both carotenoids offer protection for the eye by filtering out harmful UV radiation. In the retina, lutein and zeaxanthin form the macular pigment, which help protect against macular photoreceptor cell death which can lead to degenerative retinal diseases (such as macular degeneration). Also, by their presence in the lens, they similarly protect the lens of the eye from damage and cataract formation. (2) Synergistically works with DHA (Docosahexaenoic Acid) to promote survival and differentiation of the photoreceptors. (3) DHA also enhances lutein macular pigmentation. The supplementation of lutein and DHA increases macular pigment optical density. It is suggested that DHA may modify the lutein transport serum lipoprotein such that more lutein can be delivered into the retina. DHA supplementation enhances central macula pigmentation, whereas lutein supplementation enhances the outer areas of the macula. (3) Lutein and Zeaxanthin Integrates Visual Motor Brain Function. Accumulation of lutein and zeaxanthin occurs in two significantly related areas of the brain - the visual and motor areas. The integration of these areas of the brain determines the visual motor response - such as balance and response times. In older test subjects, balance and response times were dramatically improved with increased accumulation density of lutein and zeaxanthin in the brain.
(1) Strengthens Capillaries / Microcirculation. Bilberry anthocyanidins strengthens walls of capillaries, and improves microcirculation. The eyes contains many small capillaries which nourish the eye. Bilberry, helps support the health of the eye by improving microcirculation within the eye. (2) Protects against Photooxidation. Retinal damage and and many disorders of the retina are attributed to the accumulation of light-induced damage of the retinal pigment cells. Anthocyanidins derived from bilberry extract were shown in lab tests to inhibit photooxidiation damage. Blueberry extract anthocyanins were also shown to significantly attenuate light induced damage damage to the retina, in research studies. (3) Cataract and Macular Degeneration. Studies with age accelerated lab animals indicate that bilberry's flavonoids are powerful ocular protecting antioxidants. Longterm supplementation of Bilberry extract was able to totally prevent impairments to the lens and retina. Whereas, greater than 70% of the control animals experienced cataracts and degeneration of the retina. (4) Increases levels of retinal antioxidant enzymes. Anthocyanidins and other bilberry phenolic compounds were shown to increase levels of important oxidative defense enzymes, including glutathione S-tranferase. (5) Protective Effect on Retina During Retinal Inflammation. In experimentally induced retinal inflammation in lab animals, animals pretreated with bilberry anthocyanins were significantly protected against the damaging effects of the inflammation, including preventing damage to the photoreceptor cells. Bilberry protected the retina by decreasing levels of oxidative stress and attenuating the inflammation action of NF-kB (a signifcant inflammatory transcription factor).
Cyanidin-3-Glucoside (C3G) Anthocyanin
(1) Protects Against Retinal Photoreceptor Degeneration. In animal experiments, C3G was shown to structurally reduce photoreceptor damage and improve visual function under low lighting conditions.
(1) Protects Against Photoreceptor cell death by Visible Light Damage. In animal studies, delphinidins from the Maqui berry, were determined to supress light induced photo receptor death. Since light is a constant source of reactive oxidative stress in the eyes, delphinidins offer an potential protective mechanism for preserving eye health.
(1) Improves Cerebral and Ocular Circulation. Vinpocetine improves blood circulation to the brain, which directly feeds the blood vessels of the eye. Good cerebral blood flow is critical for ensuring that adequate levels of oxygen and nutrients are delivered to the brain and eye. Poor circulation can also result in damage to the optic nerve. Furthermore vinpocetine enhances blood flow and metabolism in the visual cortex, the component of the brain supporting vision. (2) Macular Degeneration. A clinical study of patients with early stage age-related macular degeneration (non-exudative), shown improvement of ocular blood flow, visual acuity and retinal function, after treatment with vinpocetine. (3) Neuroprotective Agent. As a phosphodiesterase inhibitor (PDE 1 inhibitor), vinpocetine suppresses cellular activities which can lead to neuro cellular death. Vinpocetine's neuro protection is broad spectrum, and includes the cells of the retina, which are an extension of the nervous system.
(1) Helps Prevent Age Related Degeneration of the Retina. The retina of the eye undergoes degeneration with age. There appears to be a correlation between degeneration of the retina and oxidative stress. Furthermore, age-related retinal degeneration corresponds to declines in retinal levels of the amino acid taurine. Taurine, an important amino acid and antioxidant in the retina, has been shown to alleviate retinal oxidative stress. Other studies involving lab animals demonstrated that supplemental taurine protects the retina against photochemical damage. (2) Offers Protective Effects to Diabetic Retinopathy. Chronicadminsitration of dietary taurine to lab animinals was shown to alleviate experimentally induced diabetic retinopathy. (3) Taurine deficiency actually DAMAGES retinal neurons. Taurine deficiency results in degeneration and cell loss of the cone photoreceptors and retinal ganglion cells. Therefore, taurine is essential for the health of the critical neuron cells of the retina. (4) Preserves Retinal Ganglion Cell Survival. The retinal gangloin cells are crucial for sending the visual signals from the retina through the optic nerve and into the brain. Studies suggest that taurine could play a major role in preventing damage to the retinal ganglion cells which normally occurs with most retinal diseases.
(1) Bone RA, et al. Lutein and zeaxanthin dietary supplements raise macular pigment density and serum concentrations of these carotenoids in humans. J Nutr 2003 Jun;133(6):1953. (2) Chucair AJ, et al. Lutein and zeaxanthin protect photoreceptors from apoptosis induced by oxidative stress: Relation with docosahexaenoic acid. Invest Ophthalmol. Vis Sci. 2007 Nov;48 (11) :5168-5177 (3) Johnson EJ, et al. The influence of supllemental lutein and docosahexaenoic acid on serum, lipoprotein, and macular pigments. Am J Clin Nutr. 2008 May;87(5):1521-9 (4) Mian E, et al. Anthocyanosides and the walls of the microvessels: further aspects of the mechanism of action of their protective effect in syndromes due to abnormal capillary fragility. Minerva Med. 1977 Oct 31;68(52):3565-81. (5) Jang YP, et al. Anthocyanins protect against A2E photooxidation in retinal pigment epithelial cells. Photochem Photobiol. 2005 May-Jun;81(3):529-36 (6) Fursova AZh, et al. Dietary supplementation with bilberry extract prevents macular degeneration and cataracts in senesce-accelerated OXYS rats. Adv Gerontol. 2005;16:76-9. (7) Vegh S, et al. Retrospective analysis of the effect of vinpocetine infusion in ophthamologic disorders. Orv Hetil. 2006 Dec 10;147(49):2361-5. (8) Avetisov SE, et al. Effect of vasoactive agents on visual functions and ocular blood flow in patients with early manifestations of age-related macular degeneration. Vestn Oftalmol. 2007 May-Jun;123(3):26-8. (9) Chen RW, et al. Broad spectrum neuroprotection profile of phosphodiesterase inhibitors as related to modulation of cell-cycle elements and capase-3 activation. Neurosci Lett. 2007 May 17;418(2):165-9. (10) Militante J, et al. Age-related retinal degeneration in animal models of aging: possible involvement of taurine deficiency and oxidative stress. Neurochem Res. 2004 Jan;29(1):151-160 (11) Yu X, et al. Dietary taurine reduces retinal damage produced by photochemical stress via antioxidant and anti-apoptotic mechanisms in Sprague-Dawley rats. Br J Nutr. 2007 Apr 30:1-9 (12) Yu X, et al. Dietary taurine supplementation ameliorates diabetic retinopathy via anti-excitotoxity of glutamate in streptozotocin-induced Sprague-Dawley rats. Neurochem Res. 2007 Aug 31. (13) Milbury PE, et al. Bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus) anthocyanins modulate heme oxygenase-1 and glutathione S-transferase-pi expression in ARPE-19 cells. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2007 May;48(5):2343-9 (14) Head KA. Natural therapies for ocular disorders, part two: cataracts and glaucoma. Altern Ned Rev. 2001 Apr;6(2):141-66 (15) Liu Y, et al. Identification of anthocyanin components of wild Chinese blueberries and amelioration of light-induced retinal damage in pigmented rabbit using whole berries. J Agric Food Chem. 2011 Jan 12;59(1):356-63. (16) Miyake S, et al. Vision preservation during retinal inflammation by anthocyanin-rich bilberry extract: cellular and molecular mechanism. Lab Invest. 2012 Jan;92(1):102-9. (17) Gaucher D, et al. Taurine deficiency damages retinal neurones: cone photoreceptors and retinal ganglion cells. Amino Acids. 2012 Apr 4. (18) Renzi LM, et al. A role for the macular carotenoids in visual motor response. Nutr Neurosci. 2013 Nov;16(6):262-8 (19) Lee SH, et al. Cyanidin-3-glucoside Extracted from Mulberry Fruit Can Reduce N-methyl-N-nitrosourea-Induced Retinal Degeneration in Rats. Curr Eye Res. 2013 Jul 24 (20) Tanaka J, et al. Maqui berry (Aristotelia chilensis) and the constituent delphinidin glycoside inhibit photoreceptor cell death induced by visible light. Food Chem. 2013 Aug 15;139(1-4):129-37.
(21) Froger N,et al. Taurine is a crucial factor to preserve retinal ganglion cell survival. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2013;775:69-83
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