Pterostilbene: Synergy with Resveratrol
Naturally occurring in blueberries and grapes, pterostilbene is closely related to resveratrol (pterostilbene is termed a “methylated analog” of resveratrol), and has many of the same anti-aging properties. Pterostilbene (like resveratrol) is a SIRT1 (sirutin) gene activator and a calorie restriction mimic. However, pterostilbene and resveratrol have differences in the bioactivities, and act in a synergistic manner when used together.(1) Moreover, pterostilbene has significantly longer bioavailability than resveratrol (80% for pterostilbene vs 20% for resveratrol) allowing more time for biological activity. (2) In fact, low dose pterostilbene administration was shown to be a more signficant modulator of improved cognition in aging neuro functions (including age-related Alzheimer's Disease) as compared to equivalent dosing of resveratrol.(7)
Anti-Cancer | Anti-Inflammtory
• Pterostilbene has many properties which help target cancer. Inflammation and oxidative stress are considered primary enablers in the transformation of cells (from normal to malignant), proliferation and spreading of the cancer. In experimentally induced cancers, pterostilbene has been shown to be an effective preventative agent, acting as a potent anti-inflammatory and antioxidant. Pterostilbene has HIGHER ANTI-CANCER ACTIVITY THAN RESVERATROL. An important mechanism for attacking cancer cells is pterostilbene's ability to destabilize the lysosomal membrane of the cancer cell, leading to cancer cell death. Cancers with highest susceptibility to pterostilbene includes melanoma and lung cancer cells (10).
• An important risk factor for colon cancer, for example, is inflammatory bowel diseases. In fact, as reported in studies, while both resveratrol and pterostilbene both exhibited colon anti-carcinogenic activity(3), pterostilbene was determined to be even more potent than resveratrol in the prevention of experimental colon cancer.(4) In one study performed by researchers at Rutgers, the authors suggested the potential use of pterostilbene for colon cancer prevention.(5) Moreover, pterostilbene has been shown to be a potent inhibitor of inflammation induced skin carcinogenesis. Demonstrated in lab mice, pretreatment with pterostilbene had a strong effect on the reduction of skin tumor formation. Pterostilbene's mechanism involved the suppression of inflammatory gene expression in the skin. (8)
Inhibition of Atherosclerosis
• Pterostilbene helps prevent the cellular death of vascular endothelium cells - which is a key event in the development of atherosclerosis. The powerful mechanism behind this action addresses two aspects: Inhibition of the attachment of oxidized LDL to the endothelium and removing oxidized LDL before it can damage the arterial lining.
1. Mikstacka R, et al. Antioxidant effect of trans-resveratrol, pterostilbene, quercetin and their combinations in human erythrocytes in vitro. Plant Foods Hum Nutr. 2010 Mar;65(1):57-63
2. Kapetanovic IM, et al. Pharmacokinetics, oral bioavailability, and metabolic profile of resveratrol and its dimethylether analog, pterostilbene, in rats. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol. 2010 Nov 30.
3. Chiou YS, et al. Pterostilbene inhibits colorectal aberrant crypt foci (ACF) and colon carcinogenesis via suppression of multiple signal transduction pathways in azoxymethane-treated mice. J Agric Food Chem. 2010 Aug 11;58(15):8833-41.
4. Chiou YS, et al. . Pterostilbene Is More Potent than Resveratrol in Preventing Azoxymethane (AOM)-Induced Colon Tumorigenesis via Activation of the NF-E2-Related Factor 2 (Nrf2)-Mediated Antioxidant Signaling Pathway. J Agric Food Chem. 2011 Mar 23;59(6):2725-33.
5. Paul S, et al. Dietary intake of pterostilbene, a constituent of blueberries, inhibits the beta-catenin/p65 downstream signaling pathway and colon carcinogenesis in rats. Carcinogenesis. 2010 Jul;31(7):1272-8.
6. Zhang L, et al. Pterostilbene protects vascular endothelial cells against oxidized low-density lipoprotein-induced apoptosis in vitro and in vivo. Apoptosis. 2011 Sep 18.
7. Chang J, et al. Low-dose pterostilbene, but not resveratrol, is a potent neuromodulator in aging and Alzheimer's disease. Neurobiol Aging. 2011 Oct 7.
8. Tsai ML, et al. Pterostilbene, a natural analogue of resveratrol, potently inhibits 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA)/12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-induced mouse skin carcinogenesis. Food Funct. 2012 Jul 30.
9. Zhang L, et al. Pterostilbene, a natural small-molecular compound, promotes cytoprotective macroautophagy in vascular endothelial cells. J Nutr Biochem. 2012 Aug 13.
10. Mena S, et al. Pterostilbene-induced tumor cytotoxicity: a lysosomal membrane permeabilization-dependent mechanism. PLoS One. 2012;7(9):e44524./mc