• Inhibiting Adipocyte (Fat Cell) Chronic Inflammation
Obesity is characterized by chronic low-grade inflammation. Adipose tissue in obese individuals is “remodeled” or “changed” by the infiltration of immune system macrophages, which are an important source of the inflammation. In obesity, it is this chronic state of low grade inflammation and is responsible for insulin resistance.(16) The general sequence leading to changes and inflammation in obese adipose tissue involves:
1. Obesity induced deformity defect of adipocytes (adipocyte hypertrophy)
2. Immune cell (macrophage) infiltration into adipose tissue
3. Result is termed “adipose tissue remodeling”. Whereby the adipose tissue is no longer normal adipose tissue, and now becomes a chronic generator of inflammation.
4. Cycle of chronic inflammation (from both adipocytes and macrophages) Adipose Tissue Inflammation Inhibition:
Ginger and curcumin can suppress inflammatory responses from remodeled obese adipose tissue, including: inhibition of macrophage infiltration inflammation and adipocyte inflammation (17, 19). These spices were shown to significantly inhibited the cellular production of proinflammatory mediators such as TNF-alpha and nitric oxide. Luteolin suppresses adipocyte activation of macrophages, blocking macrophage generated inflammation.(18)
• Supporting Healthy Anti-Inflammatory Levels of Adiponectin | Leptin | Resistin
Curcumin and pterostilbene play a considerable role in reversing many of the deleterious effects associated with obesity. Curcumin and pterostilbene invoke protective roles is modulating the regulation of the three major adipose hormones.(15, 20)
o Curcumin DECREASES levels of pro-inflammatory: Leptin and Resistin
o Curcumin INCREASES levels of anti-inflammatory: Adiponectin
o Pterostilbene DECREASES levels of pro-inflammatory: Leptin and Resistin
o Pterostilbene INCREASES levels of anti-inflammatory: Adiponectin
Effectively, curcumin and pterostilbene provide considerable support in altering the inflammatory metabolic status associated with obesity, Studies indicate that curcumin, in particular, reverses insulin resistance, hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia.(13) .