Curcumin - Diabetes Support for Brain Kidneys Pancreas
Curcumin: Diabetic Brain Protection and Preserving Function
• Protects Against Brain Dysfunction. Lab studies demonstrate the ability of curcumin to offer significant protection against diabetic encephalopathy/ (DE). DE refers to brain dysfunction and deterioration resulting from diabetes. Neuron injury and mitochondrial dysfunction due to high levels of oxidative stress and inflammation can create significant damage to the brain.(11)
• Attenuation of Neuron Mitochondria Dysfunction. Oral administration of curcumin to diabetic animals significantly elevated the antioxidant defense system, alleviating neuronal oxidative stress, increasing cellular ATP (energy) generation), attenuation of mitochondria dysfunction and damage.(8) Support for Healthy Diabetic Brain Function
• Cerebellum Protection – Supports Motor Activity. Curcumin reduces oxidative stress in the cerebellum are of the brain, which is involved with controlling the voluntary actions of the body. (5,6)
• Reverses Declines in Important Brain Substances and Activity. Diabetes has profound negative effects on the brain, affecting brain function and adaptability for functional performance. CREB, is an especially important transcription factor that supports neuronal plasticity (adaptability including formation of new brain cells) and the ability to form long-term memory. Diabetes reduces levels of CREB, whereas curcumin restores levels of CREB. (7)
• Reverses Impairment to Memory Cholinergic System. Directly impacted by diabetes is the cholinergic system, which contributes to learning and memory deficits. Curcumin reversed the parameters affected within the cholinergic system to near normal. (9)
Curcumin: Attenuating Diabetic Kidney Dysfunction (Diabetic Nephropathy)
• Renal Inflammation plays a Major Role in Acute in Chronic Kidney Diseases. Inflammation is believed to be a significant factor in the initiation and progression of kidney diseases (including diabetic nephropathy). Curcumin is known as a potent anti-inflammatory compound.(1) In several animals studies curcumin has been shown to provide significant attenuation of inflammation of the kidneys. (2, 12) In one specific study, curcumin was shown to significantly inhibit inflammatory mediated macrophage infiltration of the kidney.(2) Macrophage infiltration causes damage to the glomerulus structure of the kidney, and is a consequence of increased levels of inflammation. Additional renal abnormalities in the diabetic mice were significantly reversed by curcumin administration.
• Inhibition of Vascular Growth (Angiogenesis) in Kidney. In mice experiments, diabetic mice experienced increased levels of VEGF which in turn stimulated angiogenesis, the growth of more blood vessels in the kidney structures. Angiogenesis harms the kidney structure, which ultimately contributes to dysfunction of the kidney. When curcumin was administered to the diabetic mice, expression of VEGF was suppressed, and the treated mice had faster and improved recovery episodes.(4)
• Inhibition of High Glucose Activated Protein Involved in Diabetic Nephropathy. The accumulation of fibronectin, a glomerular extracellular protein, is characteristic of diabetic nephropathy. Scientists believe that high glucose levels sets off a chain reaction of pathway activations which lead to the accumulation of fibronection and resulting in diabetic nephropathy. Specifically, high glucose levels activate a protein known as Activator Protein-1 (AP-1) which leads to the formation of fibronectin accumulation. Curcumin inhibits the activity of AP-1 thereby decreasing the formation of fibronectin in the kidney.(13)
• End Stage Kidney Disease (ESKD). Represents the advanced stages of chronic kidney disease due to type 2 diabetes and is associated with high mortality rates. It is very common in type 2 diabetics, and continues to increase in prevalence. Evidence suggests that both proteinuria and transforming growth factor0β (TGF-β) contribute to the development of ESKD in patients with diabetic neuropathy. In a clinical study involving 20 patients with diabetic nephropathy, where turmeric (active ingredient curcumin) was administered over a 2 month period, there was a SIGNIFICANT DECREASE in levels of proteinuria, TGF-β and interleukin-8 (an inflammatory mediator) in the patients. Researchers concluded that administration of turmeric (curcumin) should be considered as part of a safe adjuvant therapy.(3)Curcumin: Synergistically Works with Insulin to Enhance Glucose Uptake • Co-Treatment of Curcumin and Insulin Exhibited Synergistic Activation of Glucose Handling Pathways. Using in-vitro muscles cells, researchers demonstrated the potent effectiveness of curcumin as an anti-diabetic agent. Among the observations made was the synergistic ability of curcumin to work with insulin to increase glucose uptake by muscle cells. Increased glucose uptake by the muscle cells was attributed to curcumin's ability to INCREASE INSULIN SENSITIVITY. Loss of insulin sensitivity is a major contributor to type 2 diabetes.(14)
Curcumin: Supporting Diabetic Pancreas Function
• Curcumin Helps Prevents Damage to Insulin Producing Islets of Langerhans (in the pancreas) during the Diabetic Condition. During diabetes, as illustrated in a study with mice, the condition further exacerbates the ability of the pancreas to produce insulin by causing inflammation, shrinkage, and destroying insulin producing beta cells of the islets. Inflammation of the islets (a condition referred to as Insulitis), is associated with infiltration of the pancreas by lymphoctyes, which not only destroys the beta cells, but damages the pancreas.
• Treatment of diabetic mice with curcumin not only PREVENTED the loss of islets cells, but actually INCREASED the number of small islets (termed langerhans neogenesis). Furthermore, there were NO SIGNS of insulitis – which is indicative of pancreas damage and destruction of pancreatic beta cells.(10) __________________________________________________________________________________________
1. Basnet P, et al. Curcumin: an anti-inflammatory molecule from a curry spice on the path to cancer treatment. Molecules. 2011 Jun 3;16(6):4567-98.
2. Soetikno V, et al. Curcumin ameliorates macrophage infiltration by inhibiting NF-κB activation and proinflammatory cytokines in streptozotocin induced-diabetic nephropathy. Nutr Metab (Lond). 2011 Jun 10;8(1):35.
3. Khajehdehi P, et al. Oral supplementation of turmeric attenuates proteinuria, transforming growth factor-β and interleukin-8 levels in patients with overt type 2 diabetic nephropathy: A randomized, double-blind and placebo-controlled study. Scand J Urol Nephrol. 2011 May 31.
4. Sawatpanich T, et al. Effect of curcumin on vascular endothelial growth factor expression in diabetic mice kidney induced by streptozotocin. J Med Assoc Thai. 2010 Feb;93 Suppl 2:S1-8.
5. Peeyush KT, et al. Neuroprotective role of curcumin in the cerebellum of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Life Sci. 2009 Nov 4;85(19-20):704-10.
6. Lakshmanan AP, et al. Curcumin attenuates hyperglycaemia-mediated AMPK activation and oxidative stress in cerebrum of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rat. Free Radic Res. 2011 Jul;45(7):788-95.
7. Kumar TP, et al. Curcumin modulates dopaminergic receptor, CREB and phospholipase C gene expression in the cerebral cortex and cerebellum of streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. J Biomed Sci. 2010 May 31;17:43.
8. Rastogi M, et al. Curcuminoids modulates oxidative damage and mitochondrial dysfunction in diabetic rat brain. Free Radic Res. 2008 Nov;42(11-12):999-1005.
9. Peeyush Kumar T, et al. Role of curcumin in the prevention of cholinergic mediated cortical dysfunctions in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2011 Jan 1;331(1):1-10.
10. Chanpoo M, et al. Effect of curcumin in the amelioration of pancreatic islets in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice. J Med Assoc Thai. 2010 Nov;93 Suppl 6:S152-9.
11. Kuhad A, et al. Curcumin attenuates diabetic encephalopathy in rats: behavioral and biochemical evidences. Eur J Pharmacol. 2007 Dec 8;576(1-3):34-42.
12. Zhong F, et al. Curcumin attenuates lipopolysaccharide-induced renal inflammation. Biol Pharm Bull. 2011;34(2):226-32.
13. Lan T, et al. Sphingosine Kinase-1 Pathway Mediates High Glucose-Induced Fibronectin Expression in Glomerular Mesangial Cells. Mol Endocrinol. 2011 Oct 13.
14. Kang C, et al. Synergistic effect of curcumin and insulin on muscle cell glucose metabolism. Food Chem Toxicol. 2010 Aug-Sep;48(8-9):2366-73.