The formation of insoluble fibers in the brain, including amyloid beta, Tau and α-synuclein are associated with dementia (especially correlated with aging). As such, targeted suppression and removal of these fibrils may be a strategic method of improving disease progression.
Results of studies demonstrated that Spearmint extract and Rosmarnic Acid (a component of Spearmint) can suppress the formation of amyloid fibrils. Furthermore, Rosmarinic Acid may breakdown already formed amyloid beta, Tau and α-synuclein fibrils.(1) Myricetin, another phenolic compound, also exhibits suppression of α-synuclein fibrils.(2)
In the brain, dementia Lewy Bodies involve primarily α-synuclein fibrils, while Alzheimer's Disease involve primarily amyloid beta fibrils.
1. Ojawa K, et al. Spearmint Extract Containing Rosmarinic Acid Suppresses Amyloid Fibril Formation of Proteins Associated with Dementia. Nutrients. 2020 Nov 13.
2. Takahashi R, et al. Phenolic compounds prevent the oligomerization of α-synuclein and reduce synaptic toxicity. J Neurochem. 2015 Sep.
It is known that the activation of FOXO transcription factors promote extreme longevity, which has been demonstrated in research animals as well as in animals such as the multi-cell animal hydra. In human longevity, those with gene variants which activate higher levels of FOXO are also the longest lived with least amounts of illness and disease.
Despite years of research declaring that antioxidants, such as vitamins C and E, promoted longevity, none have been shown to activate the longevity factors FOXO or Nrf2. Rather, potent longevity factor activation has been shown by many plant based flavonoids. (1) Flavonoids are yellow in nature, and the word is derived from the latin flavus, which means yellow.
Other FOXO Activators and Longevity Pathways:
(1) Pallauf K, et al. Flavonoids as Putative Inducers of the Transcription Factors Nrf2, FoxO, and PPARγ. Oxid Med Cell Longev. 2017
(2) Paredes-Gonzales X, et al. Induction of NRF2-mediated gene expression by dietary phytochemical flavones apigenin and luteolin. Biopharm Drug Dispos. 2015 Oct
(3) Zhang L, et al. Significant longevity-extending effects of EGCG on Caenorhabditis elegans under stress Free Radic Biol Med.
(4) Wai-Jiao Cai, et al. Icariin and its Derivative Icariside II Extend Healthspan via Insulin/IGF-1 Pathway in C. elegans. PLoS One, 2011
(5) Zhang SQ, et al. Icariin, a natural flavonol glycoside, extends healthspan in mice. Exp Gerontol. 2015 Sep;
(6) Jung HY, et al. Myricetin improves endurance capacity and mitochondrial density by activating SIRT1 and PGC-1α. Sci Rep. 2017 Jul 24
(7) Tang BL. Sirt1 and the Mitochondria. Mol Cells. 2016 Feb
(8) Xiang L, et al. Tetrahydrocurcumin extends life span and inhibits the oxidative stress response by regulating the FOXO forkhead transcription factor. Aging (Albany NY) 2011 Nov
(9) Shen LR, et al. Curcumin-supplemented diets increase superoxide dismutase activity and mean lifespan in Drosophila. Age (Dordr) 2013 Aug;