Energy generation from brown adipose tissue (thermogenesis) is important for maintaining longevity, reducing obesity and supporting energy homeostasis. Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is central to physiological energy homeostasis. Enhancing brown adipose tissue reduces obesity, diabetes, insulin resistance and non-alcoholic fatty liver..
BAT dissipates energy in the form of heat through increased theromgenesis.(1) Browning of white adipose tissue, which converts characteristics of white adipose tissue to brown adipose tissue, increases expression of the thermogenic mitochondrial protein UCP-1. The uncoupling protein 1 (UCP-1) is a potent protein which shifts energy from ATP to heat.
Greater amounts of brown adipose tissue and the thermogenic capacity of the tissue are indicative of youth. With age, brown adipose tissue is decreased, while white adipose tissue becomes predominant and accelerates aging via inflammation and insulin resistance. .
GLUCORAPHANIN - Is a precursor of sulforaphane.
In laboratory mice fed a high fat diet, glucoraphanin supplementation promoted increased energy expenditures via an increase in UCP-1 protein expression in adipose deposit areas. Furthermore, results included decreases in weight, increased insulin sensitivity and improved glucose tolerance.(2)
PTEROSTILBENE - Studied in obese rats, pterostilbene increased the thermogenic capability of the BAT through an upregulation of Ucp1 protein expression..(3)
(1) Galmozzi A, et al. ThermoMouse: an in vivo model to identify modulators of UCP1 expression in brown adipose tissue. Cell Rep. 2014. Dec.
(2) Nagata N, et al. Glucoraphanin Ameliorates Obesity and Insulin Resistance Through Adipose Tissue Browning and Reduction of Metabolic Endotoxemia in Mice. Diabetes. 2017 Feb 16.
(3) Aguirre L, et al. Effects of pterostilbene in brown adipose tissue from obese rats. J Physiol Biochem. 2017 Feb 27
In humans, there are two types of adipose tissue. White adipose tissue and brown adipose tissue. White adipose tissue is associated with excessive fat storage, obesity, insulin resistance and diabetes. Whereas, brown adipose tissue has the opposite effect - producing energy, reducing fat storage and obesity, while increasing insulin sensitivity and reducing diabetes. Further, increasing expression of brown adipose tissue (adipocytes) may also be correlated with increases in longevity.
Newborns have the greatest amount of brown fat, which helps provide a source of heat, but gradually decreases with age. Adults have a predominance of white adipose tissue which correlate with America's obesity epidemic.
BROWN ADIPOSE TISSUE
NUTRITION SUPPLEMENT SUPPORT:"Browning" of White Adipocytes.
Research indicates that fat storing white adipocytes may be altered to take on the characteristics of energy producing brown adipocytes. Such changes to white adipocytes may be an effective strategy for reducing obesity and obesity related disorders (such as insulin resistance and diabetes). Improving insulin sensitivity is a factor not only in diabetes, but also considered significant in longevity.
Improvement in number and function of mitochondria during brown fat adipogenesis. This may result in higher energy brown adipose tissue enabling even a stronger thermogenic response
(1) Inagaki T, et al. Transcriptional and epigenetic control of brown and beige adipose cell fate and function. Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol. 2016 Jun 2
(2) Qian SW, et al. BMP4-mediated brown fat-like changes in white adipose tissue alter glucose and energy homeostasis. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 2013 Feb
(3) Mookerjee SA, et al. Mitochondrial Uncoupling and Lifespan. Mech Ageing Dev. 2010 Jul - Aug.
(4) Zhang HQ, et al. Sulforaphane induces adipocyte browning and promotes glucose and lipid utilization. Mol Nutr Food Res. 2016 May 24
(5) Lone J, et al. Curcumin induces brown fat-like phenotype in 3T3-L1 and primary white adipocytes. J Nutr Biochem. 2016 Jan
(6) Ding L, et al. Andrographolide prevents high-fat diet-induced obesity in C57BL/6 mice by suppressing the sterol regulatory element-binding protein pathway. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2014 Nov
(7) You Y, et al. Mulberry and mulberry wine extract increase the number of mitochondria during brown adipogenesis. Food Funct. 2015 Feb