Citrus bergamia risso (Bergamonte®) Bioactives - Promotes Longevity & Cardio Health

The unique flavonoids in citrus bergamia (Bergamonte®) have been previously shown to have potent cardioprotective properties including effective cholesterol support. Further research indicates that citrus bergamia flavonoids have additional beneficial properties which affect disease progression and longevity.(1)

  • Cardiovascular Health -  Studies show that Bergamonte® decreases triglycerides, plasma blood glucose and dangerous small LDL particles (VLDL), which damage ateries and accelerate atherosclerosis. Furthermore Bergamonte® increases healthy HDL while maintaining essential levels of large LDL.
  • Antioxidant & Anti-Inflammatory - These effects are systemic in nature and are believed responsible for the powerful action of Bergamonte® in supporting cardiovascular health as well as protection against degenerative diseases.
  • Longevity: Activates AMPK - AMP kinase (AMPK) is involved in an important regulator of glucose and fatty acid metabolism. AMPK activation is tightly coupled with longevity, including "energy metabolism, stress resistance, and cellular proteostasis."  AMPK signaling is involved with activation of other longevity activators including FOXO and SIRT1. AMPK activation becomes inhibited with age. (2)  Bergamonte® activates AMPK.




Bergamonte® is a registered trademark of HP Ingredients.



(1) HP Ingredients October 2016.

(2) Salminen A, et al. Age-related changes in AMPK activation: Role for AMPK phosphatases and inhibitory phosphorylation by upstream signaling pathways. Ageing Res Rev. 2016 Jul;

Remarkable Vinpocetine & Citrus Bergamot - Youthful Arteries and Suppressing Atherosclerosis

Arteries degenerate with age, via a process known as vascular remodeling, leading to atherosclerosis, stroke and other cardiovascular diseases.. Therefore, preserving youthful arteries is a very important factor in longevity. Two important supplements which have been shown to suppress degenerative changes to the arteries are vinpocetine and citrus bergamot polyphenols.

VASCULAR AGING - Involves changes to the vascular endothelium and smooth muscle which promotes increased hypertension and stiffness of the arteries. The results is an aged vascular system  which is characterized by inflammation and atherosclerosis. As such, the arteries lose their ability to expand and contract, and becomes stiff, thickened and inflamed. When the vascular system ages it becomes more susceptible to hypertension, ischemic stroke and coronary heart blockage (heart attack). Furthermore, vascular aging in the brain may lead to cognitive disorders due to diminished blood flow.

Key areas of Vascular Aging:

  • NF-kB - The master transcription factor for promoting inflammation in the artery and is involved in atherosclerosis plaque progression.
  • PDE1 (phosphodiesterase) - An isozyme which plays a key role in the pathological changes which occur in the vascular structure with age. Increased levels of PDE1 are associated with loss of vasodilator function, vascular smooth muscle senescence, increased blood pressure and vascular hypertrophy. (1,2)


    Promotes youthful arteries via two mechanisms. Vinpocetine reduces the release of inflammatory cytokines from endothelial cells and vascular smooth muscle by targeting oxidative stress and inflammation of the arteries. NF-kB. Also, vinpocetine is a powerful inhibitor of PDE1.

    • Suppresses Atherosclerosis - Via the inhibition of inflammation transcription factor NF-kB.(3)
    • Inhibition of PDE1 - PDE1 is a key regulator in the pathological changes that occur in aging vascular functioning including changes to structure and blockage of blood flow. Aging (senescent) vascular cells are correlated with increased levels of PDE1. (4) Inhibition of PDE1 has been shown to reduce all biomarkers associated with vascular aging.


    CITRUS BERGAMOT (Bergamonte®) - The polyphenols in Citrus Bergamot uniquely provide artery anti-aging benefits. Citrus Bergamot provides protection directly to the vascular endothelium, in addition to optimizing cholesterol and triglycerides and inhibiting non alcoholic liver disease.

    • Vascular Endothelium Protection.  Targets arterial endothelium cells to reduce inflammation and oxidative stress. Both are associated with vascular aging.
    • Inhibits Non Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD). NAFLD is a common liver disease where fat accumulates in the liver, causing liver dysfunction and is correlated with increased cardiovascular disease and mortality. It is estimated that up to 25% of Americans have NAFLD. Furthermore, excess belly fat not only is predictor of increased cardiovascular risk, but normally indicates high fat in the liver and NAFLD.
      • Bergamot polyphenols stimulate lipid metabolism thereby preventing toxic build-up in the liver. Removal of lipids is through enhanced autophagy. (6)
    • Decreases Oxidized Cholesterol Receptors. LOX-1 is the receptor on the endothelium for oxidized cholesterol. Expression of LOX-1 is increased with pathological conditions including hypertenison, hyperlipidemia, and diabetes.(5, 7)
    • Inhibits Phosphodiesterases (PDEs). Offers similar protections as vinpocetine in preventing age-related changes to vascular structure .(7)


     VASCULAR STRENGTH  (with Vinpocetine and Bergamot Polyphenols)



    (1) Chan S, et al. PDE1 isozymes, key regulators of pathological vascular remodeling. Curr Opin Pharmacol. 2011 Dec

    (2) Bautista N, et al. Phosphodiesterase 1 regulation is a key mechanism in vascular aging. Clin Sci (Lond) 2015 Dec

    (3) Zhuang J, et al. Inhibitory effects of vinpocetine on the progression of atherosclerosis are mediated by Akt/NF-κB dependent mechanisms in apoE-/- mice. PLoS One. 2013 Dec.

    (4) Yan, C. Cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase 1 and vascular aging. Clin Sci (Lond). 2015 Dec.

    (5) Chen M, et al. LOX-1, the receptor for oxidized low-density lipoprotein identified from endothelial cells: implications in endothelial dysfunction and atherosclerosis. Pharmacol Ther. 2002 Jul

    (6) HP Ingredients. Support against NAFLD in those with Metabolic Syndrome. 2016 Apr.

    (7) HP Ingredients. 2016.

    Most Powerful Predictor of Heart Disease and Diabetes - Triglycerides and HDL

    What is the most precise predictive measure of cardiovascular disease (and diabetes)? Common dogma continues to hold LDL ("bad" cholesterol) as the most accurate measure. However, recent studies research indicate a much stronger correlation between high triglyceride-to-HDL ratios in predicting both cardiovascular disease and the development of diabetes. In a study by the American Heart Association, individuals with the highest triglyceride-HDL ratios were 16x's more likely to suffer a cardiovascular event (i.e. heart attack) as compared to individuals with the lowest triglyceride-HDL ratios. The triglyceride-to-HDL ratio is significantly stronger in predicting cardiovascular events than "high cholesterol" numbers or LDL-to-HDL ratios.(1)

    HIGH TRIGLYCERIDES - the dangerous effect of high levels of triglycerides on the cardiovascular system is multi-faceted. Negative effects of high triglyceride levels:

    • Increases Insulin Resistance - Reduces the ability of the body to utilize glucose, increasing diabetes risk and accelerates cardiovascular disease.(2)
    • Lowers Levels of Healthy HDL. HDL helps keep the arteries clean by transporting cholesterol away from the arteries.
    • Increases Levels of Harmful Small Dense LDL. Small sized LDL (Low Density Lipoproteins), also known as VLDL (Very Low Density Lipoprotein, are the most dangerous, and are primarily responsible for arterial plaques, arteriosclerosis and increased risk of heart attacks.
    • Triglycerides (optimal levels 50-100 mg/dl) 
    • Triglycerides above 150 mg/dl can be a sign of diabetes and cardiovascular disease
    • HDL should be higher than 40 mg/dl


    • Targeted Ratio: An ideal ratio < 2:1 (for example - Triglycerides 90 / HDL 45)
    • Disease Ratio Risk: Anything > 3.5:1 increases risk for cardiovascular disease and diabetes.


        Bergamote® (an extract from Bergamot citrus in Italy), is called by some advocates as the ideal natural cardiovascular support supplement. Bergamonte decreases the triglyceride-to-HDL ratio by both decreasing plasma triglycerides and increasing HDL.(3)

        • Cardiovascular Benefits:
          • Significantly improves Triglyceride-HDL ratio by lowering triglycerides while increasing HDL
          • Significantly lowers harmful VLDL levels corresponding to reduced triglycerides
          • Attenuation of Cardiac Fibrosis. Bergamot polyphenols activate AMPK, an enzyme involved in cellular energy homeostasis and longevity.(4) Recent research indicates that increased AMPK activation may also play a role in attenuation of cardiac fibrosis and repair.(5) Cardiac fibrosis decreases the functional ability of the heart muscle and occurs with normal aging and disease.
          • Attenuation (and prevention) of Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD) - Bergamot improves lipid metabolism by the liver and significantly reduces lipid content. The resulting healthier liver metabolism REDUCES the high output of liver triglyercides into the blood stream by the liver - decreasing serum triglyceride levels. NAFL is the most common form of liver disease in western countries.(6)
          • AMPK activation represents an important method of lowering serum triglycerides produced by the liver.(7)

          Bergamonte® is a registered trademark of HP Ingredients


         VASCULAR STRENGTH  (with Bergamonte®)



        (1) Turak O, et al. The Role of Plasma Triglyceride/High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Ratio to Predict New Cardiovascular Events in Essential Hypertensive Patients.Journal of Clinical Hypertension. Jan 2016.

        (2) Bertsch RA, et al. Study of the use of lipid panels as a Marker of Insulin Resistance to Determine Cardiovascular Risk.  Perm J. 2015 Fall.

        (3) HP Ingredients Research. 2016

        (4) Proshkina EN, et al. Basic mechanisms of longevity: A case study of Drosophila pro-longevity genes. Ageing Res. Rev. 2015 Nov;

        (5) Daskaopoulos EP, et al. AMPK in cardiac fibrosis and repair. Actions beyond metabolic regulation. J Mol. Cell Cardiol. 2016 Jan.

        (6) Parafati M, et al. Bergamot polyphenol fraction prevents nonalcoholic fatty liver disease via stimulation of lipophagy in cafeteria diet-induced rat model of metabolic syndrome. J Nutr Biochem. 2015 Sept. 

        (7) Zang M, et al. Polyphenols stimulate AMP-activated protein kinase, lower lipids, and inhibit accelerated atherosclerosis in diabetic LDL receptor-deficient mice. Diabetes. 2006 Aug.