In humans, there are two types of adipose tissue. White adipose tissue and brown adipose tissue. White adipose tissue is associated with excessive fat storage, obesity, insulin resistance and diabetes. Whereas, brown adipose tissue has the opposite effect - producing energy, reducing fat storage and obesity, while increasing insulin sensitivity and reducing diabetes. Further, increasing expression of brown adipose tissue (adipocytes) may also be correlated with increases in longevity.
Newborns have the greatest amount of brown fat, which helps provide a source of heat, but gradually decreases with age. Adults have a predominance of white adipose tissue which correlate with America's obesity epidemic.
BROWN ADIPOSE TISSUE
NUTRITION SUPPLEMENT SUPPORT:"Browning" of White Adipocytes.
Research indicates that fat storing white adipocytes may be altered to take on the characteristics of energy producing brown adipocytes. Such changes to white adipocytes may be an effective strategy for reducing obesity and obesity related disorders (such as insulin resistance and diabetes). Improving insulin sensitivity is a factor not only in diabetes, but also considered significant in longevity.
Improvement in number and function of mitochondria during brown fat adipogenesis. This may result in higher energy brown adipose tissue enabling even a stronger thermogenic response
(1) Inagaki T, et al. Transcriptional and epigenetic control of brown and beige adipose cell fate and function. Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol. 2016 Jun 2
(2) Qian SW, et al. BMP4-mediated brown fat-like changes in white adipose tissue alter glucose and energy homeostasis. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 2013 Feb
(3) Mookerjee SA, et al. Mitochondrial Uncoupling and Lifespan. Mech Ageing Dev. 2010 Jul - Aug.
(4) Zhang HQ, et al. Sulforaphane induces adipocyte browning and promotes glucose and lipid utilization. Mol Nutr Food Res. 2016 May 24
(5) Lone J, et al. Curcumin induces brown fat-like phenotype in 3T3-L1 and primary white adipocytes. J Nutr Biochem. 2016 Jan
(6) Ding L, et al. Andrographolide prevents high-fat diet-induced obesity in C57BL/6 mice by suppressing the sterol regulatory element-binding protein pathway. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2014 Nov
(7) You Y, et al. Mulberry and mulberry wine extract increase the number of mitochondria during brown adipogenesis. Food Funct. 2015 Feb
INFLAMMATION OF THE SKIN Common forms of inflammatory skin diseases include psoriasis and eczema. Primary common features of these diseases include chronic inflammation, including break down of the skin barrier, dryness and redness and itchiness. Hyper proliferation of skin cells, adding a thickness to the affected areas, is also common, and caused by inflammatory factors.
Psoriasis and eczema are both immune initiated diseases involving lymphocytes (T-Cells: TH1. TH2 and TH17), which cause the secretion of pro-inflammatory factors (called cytokines). The T-cells migrate into the skin where they chronically secret inflammatory factors which inflame the skin. Among the methods to reduce skin inflammation is to decrease the proliferation of T-cells in the skin and to prevent the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines. While both psoriasis and eczema are immune T-cell based diseases, the causative basis of the immune response are not the same, and therefore the effects and targets are different.(1)
NOTE: In contrast to natural ingredients, standard immunosuppressive drugs (which reduce the immune response, and are marketed for psoriasis) may have side effects, including kidney fibrosis.(16)
(1) Coimbra S, et al. A specific molecular signature for psoriasis and eczema. Annals of Translational Medicine. 2015 Apr.
(2) Ke F, et al. Soluble Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor 1 Released by Skin-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells Is Critical for Inhibiting Th17 Cell Differentiation. Stem Cells Transl Med. 2016 Jan 27
(3) Kang D, et al. Curcumin shows excellent therapeutic effect on psoriasis in mouse model. Biochimie. 2016 January 27.
(4) Zhao Y, et al. Curcumin inhibits proliferation of interleukin-22-treated HaCaT cells. Int J Clin Exp Med. 2015 Jun
(5) Antiga E, et al. Oral Curcumin (Meriva) Is Effective as an Adjuvant Treatment and Is Able to Reduce IL-22 Serum Levels in Patients with Psoriasis Vulgaris. Biomed Res Int. 2015.
(6) Sun J, et al. Curcumin relieves TPA-induced Th1 inflammation in K14-VEGF transgenic mice. Int. Immunopharmacol. 2015 Apr.
(7) Zhang C, et al. Preventive effects of andrographolide on the development of diabetes in autoimmune diabetic NOD mice by inducing immune tolerance. Int. Immunopharmacol. 2013 Aug.
(8) Liu W, et al. Andrographolide sulfonate ameliorates experimental colitis in mice by inhibiting Th1/Th17 response. Int Immunopharmacol. 2014 Jun
(9) Ku CM, et al. Anti-inflammatory effects of 27 selected terpenoid compounds tested through modulating Th1/Th2 cytokine secretion profiles using murine primary splenocytes. Food Chem. 2013 Nov 15
(10) Lee KP. et al. Anti-allergic effect of α-cubebenoate isolated from Schisandra chinensis using in vivo and in vitro experiments. J Ethnopharmacol. 2015 Sep
(11) Lee HJ, et al. Effects of Schisandra chinensis Turcz. fruit on contact dermatitis induced by dinitrofluorobenzene in mice. Mol Med Rep. 2015 Aug
(12) Lauffer F, et al. Target-oriented therapy: Emerging drugs for atopic dermatitis. Expert Opin Emerg. Drugs. 2016 Jan 25.
(13) Pyo MY, et al. Cyanidin-3-glucoside suppresses Th2 cytokines and GATA-3 transcription factor in EL-4 T cells. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 2014
(14) Kim MJ, et al. Mixture of Polyphenols and Anthocyanins from Vaccinium uliginosum L. Alleviates DNCB-Induced Atopic Dermatitis in NC/Nga Mice. Evid. Based Complement Alternat. Med. 2012.
(15) Min HK, et al. Anthocyanin Extracted from Black Soybean Seed Coats Prevents Autoimmune Arthritis by Suppressing the Development of Th17 Cells and Synthesis of Proinflammatory Cytokines by Such Cells, via Inhibition of NF-κB. PLoS One. 2015 Nov 6
(16) Kedzierska K, et al. The effect of immunosuppressive therapy on renal cell apoptosis in native rat kidneys. Histol Histopathol. 2015 Jan.