The hypothalamus is a small structure in the brain which is involved in important physiological functions including homeostasis and systemic energy balance, which support health and longevity. Recent research indicates that the neural stem cells found within hyopathalamus may be key to slowing the aging process. However, this not through neurogenesis, but by the secretion of exosomes and microRNA content. (1) Exosomes are vesicles released by the stem cells into the cerebrospinal fluid. Exosomes are an important mechanism for cell-to-cell communications. communication. The content of exsomes include microRNAs, which modifies the expression of genes in the recipient cell.
Inflammation and the Hypothalamus
Longevity of Hypothalamus Neural Stem Cells (Hnsc). With aging there is a significant increase in inflammation, which negatively affects the pool of neural stem cells in the hypothalamus, decreasing their numbers, thereby reducing release of exosomes and microRNA. Most importantly, microRNAs slows aging by inhibiting inflammatory gene expression, thereby improving health of the hypothalamus (3). In experimental animals, the start of aging in the animals began with the loss of hypothalamus stem cells.(4)
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(1) Mendelsohn AR, et al. Inflammation, Stem Cells, and the Aging Hypothalamus. Rejuvenation Res. 2017 Aug
(2) Santos CL, et al, Age-Dependent Neurochemical Remodeling of Hypothalamic Astrocytes. Mol Neurobiol, 2017 Oct 4
(3) Meyer K, et al. Slowing Down Aging. Cell Metabb. 2017 Oct 3
(4) Zhang Y, et al, Hypothalamic stem cells control ageing speed partly through exosomal miRNAs. Nature. 2017 Aug 3