Energy generation from brown adipose tissue (thermogenesis) is important for maintaining longevity, reducing obesity and supporting energy homeostasis. Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is central to physiological energy homeostasis. Enhancing brown adipose tissue reduces obesity, diabetes, insulin resistance and non-alcoholic fatty liver..
BAT dissipates energy in the form of heat through increased theromgenesis.(1) Browning of white adipose tissue, which converts characteristics of white adipose tissue to brown adipose tissue, increases expression of the thermogenic mitochondrial protein UCP-1. The uncoupling protein 1 (UCP-1) is a potent protein which shifts energy from ATP to heat.
Greater amounts of brown adipose tissue and the thermogenic capacity of the tissue are indicative of youth. With age, brown adipose tissue is decreased, while white adipose tissue becomes predominant and accelerates aging via inflammation and insulin resistance. .
GLUCORAPHANIN - Is a precursor of sulforaphane.
In laboratory mice fed a high fat diet, glucoraphanin supplementation promoted increased energy expenditures via an increase in UCP-1 protein expression in adipose deposit areas. Furthermore, results included decreases in weight, increased insulin sensitivity and improved glucose tolerance.(2)
PTEROSTILBENE - Studied in obese rats, pterostilbene increased the thermogenic capability of the BAT through an upregulation of Ucp1 protein expression..(3)
(1) Galmozzi A, et al. ThermoMouse: an in vivo model to identify modulators of UCP1 expression in brown adipose tissue. Cell Rep. 2014. Dec.
(2) Nagata N, et al. Glucoraphanin Ameliorates Obesity and Insulin Resistance Through Adipose Tissue Browning and Reduction of Metabolic Endotoxemia in Mice. Diabetes. 2017 Feb 16.
(3) Aguirre L, et al. Effects of pterostilbene in brown adipose tissue from obese rats. J Physiol Biochem. 2017 Feb 27